Course Summary

Practice Level: Advanced

There have been significant advances in the treatment and management of mental illnesses. New, more effective psychiatric medications are available. In spite of these advances, many patients and their families struggle with the realization that although these treatments are helpful they are not able to return the patient to a fully functioning life; their conditions are resistant to treatment and they continue to suffer for months or years while hoping for an appropriate treatment that will help their condition. This course discusses those particular situations whereby patients are diagnosed with mood or psychotic disorders and, despite attempts at managing their condition, are resistant to treatment.

Course Format

This course contains downloadable online lessons (PDF) and a practice test. When you’re ready, purchase the course by clicking the “Add To Cart” or “Enroll” button. This will let you take the test, complete the course evaluation and receive your certificate for CE credits.

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the impact of refractory mental illness
  • Explain refractory mental disorders
  • Discuss treatment resistance in mood disorders
  • Explain when ECT is considered
  • Discuss Psychiatric Advance Directives

Course Syllabus

  1. Introduction
  2. Impact Of Refractory Mental Illness
  3. Defining Refractory Mental Disorders
  4. Refractory Mental Illness Risk Factors
  5. The Assessment Process
  6. Treatment And Review Of Outcomes
  7. Polypharmacy And Drug-Drug Interactions
  8. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
  9. Psychiatric Advance Directives (PAD)
  10. Summary


Jassin M. Jouria, MD

Jassin M. Jouria is a medical doctor, professor of academic medicine, and medical author. He graduated from Ross University School of Medicine and has completed his clinical clerkship training in various teaching hospitals throughout New York, including King’s County Hospital Center and Brookdale Medical Center, among others. Dr. Jouria  has served as a test prep tutor and instructor for Kaplan. He has developed several medical courses and curricula for a variety of educational institutions. Dr. Jouria has also served on multiple levels in the academic field including faculty member and Department Chair. Dr. Jouria continues to serves as a Subject Matter Expert for several continuing education organizations covering multiple basic medical sciences.

Accreditation Approval Statements is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. maintains responsibility for this program and its content. has been approved by NBCC as an Approved Continuing Education Provider, ACEP No. 6991. Programs that do not qualify for NBCC credit are clearly identified. is solely responsible for all aspects of the programs.

Courses have been approved by, as a NAADAC Approved Education Provider, for educational credits. NAADAC Provider #91345 is responsible for all aspects of the programming.

We are committed to providing our learners with unbiased information. CE4Less never accepts commercial support and our authors have no significant financial or other conflicts of interest pertaining to the material.

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